The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the mentoring experiences between female executives and junior women. The research question was: What is the nature of the mentoring relationship between senior women and junior women in organizations? The related questions were: (1) How do mentoring relationships evolve between female executives and junior women? (2) What characterizes the mentoring relationship between senior women and junior women? (3) What are prominent mentoring strategies employed by executive women to foster professional growth of junior women? (4) What mentoring strategies are perceived to be most effective at promoting junior women? (5) Why are particular mentoring strategies perceived to be most effective?
A phenomenological research design was employed to examine the experience of mentoring relationships from the perspective of ten senior executive women and thirteen junior women in the organization. Methods of data collection included in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.
Research findings include the following: (1) All participants indicated that their mentoring experiences were positive and characterized by trust, based on the dimensions of honesty, respect, and confidentially. (2) All participants believed that guidance and encouragement were effective mentoring strategies employed by senior executive women with junior women in their organization. Employment of those mentoring strategies was perceived to result in better career development, greater levels of career maturity and more advancement opportunities for junior women. (3) The mentoring relationship between executive and junior women evolved into either a business relationship or friendship. (4) Senior women also assumed informal mentor roles with junior women in their organization that contributed to learning, career development and advancement opportunities. (5) Senior women recognized that they personally experienced benefits in the form of new skills and perspectives from mentoring junior women in their organization.
Shelters for abused women have expanded from “safe havens” to providing a range of residential and outreach services, and face increasing pressure to demonstrate “value for money” by providing evaluation metrics that may or may not reflect what they actually do. We conducted interviews and surveys with 68 shelter directors in Ontario, Canada, and found that differences in service philosophy and how abuse is defined influence decisions about who receives services and the shelter’s role in the broader community; these in turn affect how the work of shelters is positioned. Implications for shelter service evaluation are discussed.
Women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions within sport. As the number of women entering sport increases, a growing number of professionals recognize the inherent benefits of the mentoring relationship across a range of professional settings including sport (Bower, Hums, & Keedy, 2006; Grappendorf, Burton, & Lilienthal, 2007). Unfortunately, mentors are not always a viable option for women wanting to advance within leadership positions in sport. A primary reason for limited opportunities is the shortage of female in leadership positions within sport organizations creating a dearth of potential female mentors (Weaver & Chelladurai, 2002). Therefore, this paper explored the dynamics of the mentoring relationship between one professional organization (NAGWS) and potential career outcomes for women in sport. Specifically, how does NAGWS use group mentoring initiatives for girls and women in sport which may lead to potential advancement opportunities?
Mentoring has been identified as a key strategy to career development and has been argued to be indispensable for women to advance to positions of power. For mentoring to succeed, it is imperative that mentors trust their protégés. However, recent research has suggested that male mentors trust their male protégés more so than their female protégés. Since women are frequently mentored by men, it is imperative that they gain the same level of trust as their male peers enjoy. According to an established model of trust, trust is shaped by the mentor’s perceptions of protégé ability, benevolence and integrity, as well as perceptions of the risk inherent to mentoring. This exploratory research aims to examine what influences these perceptions to shed light on how protégés can gain the trust of their mentors.
Like other liberal-welfare states, Canada, in a climate of balanced budgets and deficit reduction, has been active in developing policies intended to move welfare recipients into employment in order to achieve self- sufficiency. The purpose of this paper is to employ a critical feminist analysis to examine the extent to which these policies, developed under the ideological umbrella of neo-liberalism, are gender sensitive. Literature on the economic and non-economic impacts of welfare-to-work policies is re-viewed to evaluate whether these initiatives, while mandating lone-mothers into employment, recognize the gendered nature of work, employment and poverty. Gaps in current research are identified and questions are posed about the implications of welfare-to-work on the citizenship entitlements of low-income lone mothers.
The author presents an overview of issues related to counseling women re-entering the workforce. He suggests that counselors are in a strategic position to help women through the transitions and conflicts associated with returning to work and discusses (a) career barriers related to gender role stereotyping, (b) current job trends for women, (c) expectations for women re-entering the workforce, (d) suggestions for raising aspirations for re-entry women, and (e) developing energy opportunities.
The prevailing discourse informing most Canadian training and labour market policy assumes a positive link between individuals’ training and their labour market returns in the new knowledge economy. The primary objective of the study is to test the current rhetoric by developing a statistical model of women’s job-related training. Training participation is a complex and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. Within the arsenal of existing statistical methods, structural equation modeling is one of the few methods with a capacity to represent complex phenomenon by simultaneously testing cause-and-effect hypotheses. The study uses structural equation modelling to develop, test, and evaluate a model of the determinants and rewards of women’s job related training. Empirical studies of job-related training in Canada are few. Until the recent launch of a linked, employer–employee survey, there had been a paucity of data sources that facilitate a national level analysis of job-related training. By using this new data source, the study makes a significant contribution filling the existing gap in our understanding of the determinants of, and returns to women’s training in Canada. The study confirms that women are deriving significant economic benefits from their training participation. The conclusion drawn from the national-level patterns in Canada is that training is a crucial element in the reward structure of the labour market for women, as it plays a dual role of being both a reward in itself and a predictor of other labour market rewards.
This paper was commissioned by DFID and IDRC with a view to locating the growing concern with women’s economic empowerment within its growth research programs. Inclusive growth, as defined by IDRC, is growth which ensures opportunities for all sections of the population, with a special emphasis on the poor, particularly women and young people, who are most likely to be marginalized. Central to both IDRC’s and DFID’s agenda is a concern with decent jobs and the promotion of small and medium enterprise. That there is both an instrumental and an intrinsic rationale for such an explicit focus on women within such an agenda is suggested by recent research suggesting an asymmetry in the two-way relationship between gender equality and economic growth (see, for instance, WDR 2012). A detailed review of the evidence helps to spell this out (Kabeer and Natali, forthcoming). This evidence suggests that there is fairly strong empirical support for the claim that gender equality has a positive impact on economic growth. The relationship is most consistent with regard to education (the most widely studied) and employment (less frequently studied), holding for a variety of different countries and across differing time periods over the past half century.
In the face of shrinking social services and increased social need, women’s community work faces several challenges. One challenge is the organizational strain of attempting to meet increased needs in the face of restructured public services that have weakened the state’s response to social need. A second challenge is that as the resources to support this work are reduced, they are also retargeted in ways that support a program delivery focus on individual responsibility. While on the one hand, women’s organizations aim to alter an inequitable distribution of resources that makes their community work essential for survival (Erbaugh, 2002; Jaggar, 2005; Naples, 1992; Susser, 1988), on the other hand, they find themselves limited, squeezed and regulated into focusing their services in ways that are consistent with a reconfigured citizenship in which individuals are responsible for their own material provision (Finn, 2002; Hyatt, 2001; Molyneux, 2002; Schild, 2000). A central dilemma facing women’s organizations is that even as women challenge the erosion of social citizenship, their provisioning work can become a substitute for public resources and a tool for assigning individual responsibility. In this qualitative analysis of the collective provisioning work that women undertake in community groups, we explore the connections and paradoxes in that work, particularly with regard to understanding the notion of citizenship, what constitutes participation in citizenship activities and how women challenge market citizenship. In this discussion, the changing nature of what constitutes strategic activities for marginalized citizenry is also taken up.