Drawing on social exchange theory and associated notions of reciprocity, we argue that interpersonal support for training transfer in the workplace is associated with increased employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and reduced turnover intention. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 786 Chinese retail employees. The findings show that when employees perceive high levels of supervisor/peer support for training transfer, they are more likely to deliver higher levels of task performance and OCB in response, which in turn, lead to reduced turnover intention. We also found that the strength of the relationship between supervisor/peer support for training transfer on individuals’ OCB varied across regions within China. The results confirm the moderating role of regional context (coastal and inland regions) on the relationship between supervisor/peer support for training transfer on individuals’ OCB, with a stronger effect found in less economically developed inland regions. The moderating effect of region indicates that cross?cultural researchers need to be aware of possible within?country variations in employee attitudes and values.
Although billions of dollars are spent annually on training and development, much about the transfer processes is not well understood. This study investigated the interaction of workplace climate and peer support on the transfer of learning in a corporate field setting. Supervisor ratings of performance on several skill dimensions were obtained before and after training. Trainees in a division with a more favorable climate and those with greater peer support showed greater improvement. In addition, peer support mitigated the effects of a negative climate. Trainees with peer support in a negative climate achieved the same degree of transfer as trainees in a positive climate. These results suggest that more proximal factors, like peer support, can overcome the effect of more distal factors, like climate, in promoting transfer. This study also advances understanding of the transfer process by assessing workplace environment with the use of measures other than trainee perceptions.