“The Caledon Institute of Social Policy committed to continue the data series following the demise of the National Council of Welfare in 2012. The figures presented in this report are based on the same methodology employed by the Council, thereby ensuring the integrity and comparability of the data series. The welfare incomes in this report represent the total amount that four typical households would receive over the course of a year. These households are: a single person considered employable, a single person with a disability, a single parent with one child age 2 and a couple with two children ages 10 and 15.
Total welfare incomes consist of the sum of two main components:
ï social assistance
ï provincial/territorial and federal child benefits as well as relevant provincial/territorial and federal tax credits.
It is important to note that the amounts shown for welfare represent the maximum paid for basic needs. Households may receive less if they derive income from other sources. Some households may be eligible for more than the amounts identified here if they have special health- or disability-related needs.”
The past 15 years has been a period of active policy reform in the cash and near-cash social safety nets of both the United States and Canada. Perhaps more than any other area of social policy, programs in both countries aimed at low-income families and children have evolved from their pre- 1992 form. This paper examines this evolution across the two countries, both reviewing the existing evidence and providing additional analysis on how the programs have fared in achieving a broad set of goals. We focus on the two largest programs over this period: the US EITC and the Canadian NCB/CCTB. The evolution of these programs in both countries represents a significant move away from what preceded them and the programs in the two countries now share many similarities. However, we also note “small differences” across these programs that may matter, the largest of which is the work requirements across the two countries. In light of these changes, we examine trends in employment, poverty and family structure of the most affected families, across the two countries. We also review the existing evaluations of these policies and find that the programs in both countries have had significant benefits for children, increased employment for single mothers, and are associated with declines in poverty.
The current emphasis in European welfare states on ‘activation’ increases the relevance of insight into social assistance dynamics and work–welfare/welfare–work transitions. This article reports on a study that explored the employment, unemployment and social assistance careers of a large group of people who managed to become independent from social assistance by finding a job. Using the databases of social security agencies in the Dutch city of Rotterdam, it investigates the sustainability of social assistance independence and labour market inclusion, and identifies groups that are more or less likely to be confronted with spells of renewed social assistance dependency or unemployment.
We estimate the effect of active labour market programs on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post program effects, and, surprisingly, even most in-program effects are positive. The effects are largest for subsidized employment programs, but effects are also large and significant for direct employment programs and other programs. The effects are larger if programs begin after six months of unemployment. Implications of our estimates are illustrated by calculating effects on the duration to regular employment over a five-year period.
This paper examines the reforms that governments have enacted to change both the focus of their social assistance programs and their method of delivery. In particular, the paper concentrates on the relationship between welfare reform and labour market policies. The objective is to determine which of these reforms seem to work well, which do not, and why. Understanding how these welfare reforms both depend on and affect the labour market will be useful in the development of future policies that fall within federal jurisdiction.
This literature review examined the knowledge base around social assistance and workplace training programs happening in Saskatchewan and as compared to the rest of Canada. While the provincial government claims that the welfare to work programs are leading to a decrease in the dependence on social assistance, the report argues that it does not necessarily represent the lived experiences of those attempting to transition from welfare to waged work, and suggests that this transition is much more difficult than was perhaps originally thought. The report explored policy changes around economic status and the quality of life for individuals living in the identified areas, and was interested not only in the impact but also in the development of more effective government and community support to increase the sustainability and quality of life for people living on social assistance.
Having a decent job is necessary for Canadians’ financial security and to be a part of the community. The purpose of skills training support is to help Canadians, within their ability, remain consistently part of the labour force and have control over their career. Skills training programs exist to help Canadians get good jobs, overcome barriers to entering the labour market, and recover from setbacks such as layoffs. Two target populations are most in need of support from federally-backed skills programs: new labour market entrants and those facing long-term unemployment or underemployment. Those new to the labour market or returning after a long absence (such as youth, newcomers to Canada, Aboriginal Canadians, and those living with disabilities) may need support to overcome challenges to finding their first, stable employment and to establishing careers. Workers who have had their careers upended by largescale, disruptive economic forces may need training to help them shift careers.