Drawing on social exchange theory and associated notions of reciprocity, we argue that interpersonal support for training transfer in the workplace is associated with increased employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and reduced turnover intention. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 786 Chinese retail employees. The findings show that when employees perceive high levels of supervisor/peer support for training transfer, they are more likely to deliver higher levels of task performance and OCB in response, which in turn, lead to reduced turnover intention. We also found that the strength of the relationship between supervisor/peer support for training transfer on individuals’ OCB varied across regions within China. The results confirm the moderating role of regional context (coastal and inland regions) on the relationship between supervisor/peer support for training transfer on individuals’ OCB, with a stronger effect found in less economically developed inland regions. The moderating effect of region indicates that cross?cultural researchers need to be aware of possible within?country variations in employee attitudes and values.
Despite several suggestions that peer support is empowering for persons with mental health problems because of its mutual nature, few studies have empirically studied the role of its reciprocity and the effects on subjective well-being of clients from mainstream mental health care settings. Using data of 628 users of vocational and psychiatric rehabilitation centers (N = 51) in Flanders, the effects of the reciprocity of peer support on self-esteem and self-efficacy are explored by testing hypotheses derived from the theories of exchange, social capital, equity, and self-esteem enhancement. Results show that providing peer support is more beneficial than receiving it. One conclusion is that the net beneficial effects of receiving support from peers are overestimated.