This article describes what it means to feel poor from the perspective of low-income lone mothers. The construct of feeling poor is complex and multifaceted for these mothers, whose common behaviors include self-sacrifice and coping. The authors identify 10 feeling domains for these mothers: feeling deprived, righteous, the need for occupational choice, relatively better positioned than others, the need to manage the appearance of poverty, judged/degraded, guilty, isolated, dependent, and despondent.
Drawing on cutting-edge research from behavioral science and economics, Mullainathan and Shafir show that scarcity creates a similar psychology for everyone struggling to manage with less than they need. Busy people fail to manage their time efficiently for the same reasons the poor and those maxed out on credit cards fail to manage their money. The dynamics of scarcity reveal why dieters find it hard to resist temptation, why students and busy executives mismanage their time, and why sugarcane farmers are smarter after harvest than before. Once we start thinking in terms of scarcity and the strategies it imposes, the problems of modern life come into sharper focus.Mullainathan and Shafir discuss how scarcity affects our daily lives, recounting anecdotes of their own foibles and making surprising connections that bring this research alive. Their book provides a new way of understanding why the poor stay poor and the busy stay busy, and it reveals not only how scarcity leads us astray but also how individuals and organizations can better manage scarcity for greater satisfaction and success.
This paper examines the reforms that governments have enacted to change both the focus of their social assistance programs and their method of delivery. In particular, the paper concentrates on the relationship between welfare reform and labour market policies. The objective is to determine which of these reforms seem to work well, which do not, and why. Understanding how these welfare reforms both depend on and affect the labour market will be useful in the development of future policies that fall within federal jurisdiction.
Overcoming Poverty Together: The New†Brunswick Economic and Social Inclusion Plan, 2014-2019, builds on the momentum of New†Brunswickís initial economic and social inclusion plan launched in 2009. It serves as a roadmap for the province to move towards economic and social inclusion for all. The plan is based on information gathered during the Overcoming Poverty Together 2 (OPT2) public engagement. This process provided an opportunity for New†Brunswickers to come together to discuss issues surrounding economic and social inclusion. These discussions led to a five-year action plan for the province to pursue. It is not a ìhow toî plan but, rather, a ìwhat can be done collectivelyî plan to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for all people living in our province. This is what gives the plan its uniqueness.
The purpose of this study is to undertake a broad synthesis and analysis that critically examines federal, provincial, sub-provincial and international instruments, policies, and practices aimed at fostering the inclusion of homeless persons through:• Employment related activities that increase labour market attachment and integration;
• Opportunities for skills development; and
• Higher literacy and essential skills achievement via effective policy and program development strategies.
While the goal of the study is to examine Canadian policies and programs, experiences from other countries, notably the United States, England and Scotland, were reviewed to offer a broader perspective on the Canadian experience.
The next step in welfare to work policy must include addressing the needs of particular places and populations based on what has been learned since welfare reform legislation was enacted in 1996. One of the important lessons learned is that transitional jobs arean especially promising policy response to the needs of hard-pressed urban and rural communities, and unemployed people facing barriers to work. Transitional jobs are wage paying, community service jobs for welfare recipients and other unemployed adults who have not been hired after a job search in the regular labor market. The jobs provide experience and employer references that improve chances of success in the job market and enable families to avoid destitution when welfare benefits end. While some policymakers have argued that working in a transitional job is no different from unpaid workfare, research shows that transitional job participants have better earnings and employment outcomes. Certainly, transitional jobs are more expensive because they include work supports, supervision and some training. The participants’ success, however, demonstrates the value of additional investment in targeted populations.
This literature review examined the knowledge base around social assistance and workplace training programs happening in Saskatchewan and as compared to the rest of Canada. While the provincial government claims that the welfare to work programs are leading to a decrease in the dependence on social assistance, the report argues that it does not necessarily represent the lived experiences of those attempting to transition from welfare to waged work, and suggests that this transition is much more difficult than was perhaps originally thought. The report explored policy changes around economic status and the quality of life for individuals living in the identified areas, and was interested not only in the impact but also in the development of more effective government and community support to increase the sustainability and quality of life for people living on social assistance.