“The Caledon Institute of Social Policy committed to continue the data series following the demise of the National Council of Welfare in 2012. The figures presented in this report are based on the same methodology employed by the Council, thereby ensuring the integrity and comparability of the data series. The welfare incomes in this report represent the total amount that four typical households would receive over the course of a year. These households are: a single person considered employable, a single person with a disability, a single parent with one child age 2 and a couple with two children ages 10 and 15.
Total welfare incomes consist of the sum of two main components:
ï social assistance
ï provincial/territorial and federal child benefits as well as relevant provincial/territorial and federal tax credits.
It is important to note that the amounts shown for welfare represent the maximum paid for basic needs. Households may receive less if they derive income from other sources. Some households may be eligible for more than the amounts identified here if they have special health- or disability-related needs.”
The past 15 years has been a period of active policy reform in the cash and near-cash social safety nets of both the United States and Canada. Perhaps more than any other area of social policy, programs in both countries aimed at low-income families and children have evolved from their pre- 1992 form. This paper examines this evolution across the two countries, both reviewing the existing evidence and providing additional analysis on how the programs have fared in achieving a broad set of goals. We focus on the two largest programs over this period: the US EITC and the Canadian NCB/CCTB. The evolution of these programs in both countries represents a significant move away from what preceded them and the programs in the two countries now share many similarities. However, we also note “small differences” across these programs that may matter, the largest of which is the work requirements across the two countries. In light of these changes, we examine trends in employment, poverty and family structure of the most affected families, across the two countries. We also review the existing evaluations of these policies and find that the programs in both countries have had significant benefits for children, increased employment for single mothers, and are associated with declines in poverty.
This report presents a summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the Summative Evaluation of the OF. Findings from the evaluation’s multiple lines of evidence support the previous evaluation findings that the program has positive impacts on the employment and income levels of participants following program participation. Also, there continues to be a demonstrated need for the type of programming offered by OF for persons with disabilities and the program reflects both GC and Departmental policy directions and priority areas.The evidence collected for the evaluation can be found in more detail in technical reports which have been made available to program management. This document consists of the following three sections:
Section 1 provides a description of the OF program and the scope of the evaluation.
Section 2 presents the main findings regarding Relevance, Design and Delivery and Performance (Effectiveness, Efficiency and Economy).
Section 3 summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations.
The purpose of this rapid scoping review is to identify the most promising policies, programs and employment practices which include people with physical disabilities in the workforce. The findings from this report are presented as 11 key implications that are organized into categories according to three target audience: (1) vocational rehabilitation and employment service providers; (2) employers and (3) businesses leaders and policy decision makers.
How can indigenous evaluators implement culturally competent models in First Nations communities while ensuring that government grant evaluation requirements are met? Through describing the challenges in one tribal community in the United States, this article will discuss how American Indian/Alaska Native substance abuse prevention programs are evaluating the implementation and outcomes of Strategic Prevention Framework grants from the federal government’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Requirements for implementing evidence-based programs normed on other populations and for evaluating data based on quantitative methods add to the challenge. Throughout the process, much is being learned that it is hoped will strengthen indigenous grantees and increase the cultural competence of government evaluation requirements. (Contains 2 figures.)
This paper examines the reforms that governments have enacted to change both the focus of their social assistance programs and their method of delivery. In particular, the paper concentrates on the relationship between welfare reform and labour market policies. The objective is to determine which of these reforms seem to work well, which do not, and why. Understanding how these welfare reforms both depend on and affect the labour market will be useful in the development of future policies that fall within federal jurisdiction.
In the present context of labour shortages and skills gaps in Canada, it has been acknowledged that the country cannot afford to keep going without the talents of entire groups of populations that are currently under-represented in the labour market. Among those groups are people with disabilities. This group is far from homogenous, and therefore not easy to define. Data in this paper helps to show a picture of the employment situation of people with disabilities. This paper also addresses some of the barriers that people with disabilities face, and provides an overview of certain federal programs that can help them. Finally, this paper discusses the Canadian legislative framework, with a focus on measures that prevent discrimination against people with disabilities, allowing them to join the workforce and engage fully in their communities.
BACKGROUND:Participation in the workforce is one of the main social evaluations all individuals are subject to in modern society. Public policies supporting social justice for persons with disabilities have gained prominence in several nations in the last decades and it is critical to ensure that those who want to work are afforded the opportunity to do so. Meanwhile they remain under represented in the labor market within the contemporary world.
The purpose of this study was to identify facilitators or barriers faced by people with disability within the workforce.
Ten workers with disabilities from various companies and performing diverse professional job functions participated in semi-structured interviews.
The Discourse of the Collective Subject method was employed as a means to organize and analyze qualitative data of a verbal nature.
Reasonable work conditions, adjustments, and accommodations facilitate performance and job retention. Social participation through employment leads to social recognition and the feeling of citizenship. On the other hand prejudice, unequal opportunities, workers’ low educational attainment, and lack of training opportunities lead to employment exclusion.
To include people with disabilities in the workforce, it is necessary to focus on attaining equal levels of education, an unbiased and inclusive process for entering the labor market, and continued management of disability issues within the workplace. Together, these elements create equal opportunities for workers with disabilities to advance in their careers, which in turn enables participation, social recognition and guaranties their rights as citizens.
Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of current and previous government policies and strategies, in relation to people with learning disabilities and employment, to facilitate a better understanding of the current situation and future challenges.
– A search was completed to identify government policies relating to the employment of people with learning disabilities. Key policies were identified and their impact was discussed in the paper.
– It appears there is a necessity to identify how successful pilot projects can be replicated on a national scale, with clear targets and measures and initial financial support to set up these services. Alongside this there is a need for interventions targeting not just employers, but the general population, educating people about the importance of including and valuing people with learning disabilities in the workforce.
– It is important that policy is analyzed and the impact of it is assessed to determine whether more action is necessary. This paper adds updates to some of the issues discussed in Melling et al.’s (2011) paper about “Supported employment for people with learning disabilities”.
The prevailing discourse informing most Canadian training and labour market policy assumes a positive link between individuals’ training and their labour market returns in the new knowledge economy. The primary objective of the study is to test the current rhetoric by developing a statistical model of women’s job-related training. Training participation is a complex and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. Within the arsenal of existing statistical methods, structural equation modeling is one of the few methods with a capacity to represent complex phenomenon by simultaneously testing cause-and-effect hypotheses. The study uses structural equation modelling to develop, test, and evaluate a model of the determinants and rewards of women’s job related training. Empirical studies of job-related training in Canada are few. Until the recent launch of a linked, employer–employee survey, there had been a paucity of data sources that facilitate a national level analysis of job-related training. By using this new data source, the study makes a significant contribution filling the existing gap in our understanding of the determinants of, and returns to women’s training in Canada. The study confirms that women are deriving significant economic benefits from their training participation. The conclusion drawn from the national-level patterns in Canada is that training is a crucial element in the reward structure of the labour market for women, as it plays a dual role of being both a reward in itself and a predictor of other labour market rewards.