The purpose of this rapid scoping review is to identify the most promising policies, programs and employment practices which include people with physical disabilities in the workforce. The findings from this report are presented as 11 key implications that are organized into categories according to three target audience: (1) vocational rehabilitation and employment service providers; (2) employers and (3) businesses leaders and policy decision makers.
This is a review of Canadian best practices supporting the participation of persons with disabilities in the labour market. The objective of the research is to identify and analyze domestic best practices in programs, approaches or initiatives that support the participation of people with disabilities in the labour market. A related aim is to show how they can overcome barriers to labour market participation, thereby allowing governments to draw lessons from effective and successful employment programs for people with disabilities and develop policy options to optimize labour market outcomes for this group.
With a rapidly aging demographic, the labour force attachment of older Canadians has become a key area of policy research for mitigating ensuing economic issues. This paper examines the labour force attachment of older Canadians aged 50 years and older through the use of four labour force outcomes: labour force participation, employment status, full-time full-year status, and retirement status. Two sub-samples are created based on age to compare the impact and change in behavior of individuals approaching the normal retirement age of 65 (i.e. 50-64) to those who have passed this age (i.e. 65+). Furthermore, genders are analyzed separately in order to assess the differences in behavior between men and women. Determinants for the fouroutcomes are also assessed. These include, but are not limited to, age group, marital status, educational attainment, region of residence, and presence of children in the household. Of the analyzed determinants, the results suggest that age is the most impactful factor for men and women in both the 50-64 and 65+ sub-samples. Compared to the youngest age categories, older individuals are less likely to have strong labour force attachment. Marital status and educational attainment also demonstrate to be important determinants for the labour market outcomes of older workers. The results for marital status suggest differing experiences for men and women in the 50-64 and 65+ sub-samples and those for educational attainment generally show that higher educational attainment is associated with stronger labour force attachment.
Supporting those mature-age workers who wish to continue working is a key policy challenge arising from the Intergenerational Report 2010. As previous research indicates, there are many factors that influence labour market engagement of those approaching retirement. This paper examines those factors with a particular focus on the role of occupations and job characteristics. The analysis centres on the labour market transition of men and women aged between 55 and 64 years old over a time period of approximately one year. The data used for our analysis is drawn from the first 7 waves of the HILDA data and we utilize a multinomial logit (MNL) model to determine the characteristics associated with remaining in full-time employment, moving into full retirement and/or moving into partial retirement. Consistent with previous research, we find that certain household and financial factors such as the labour force status of a partner, wages and home ownership are associated with the retirement paths of mature-age people. Further the results indicate that certain occupations and job characteristics are significantly correlated with the employment engagement of mature-age workers.
Lack of participation in the open labour market is highly prevalent for people with a mental illness across countries, and the proportion of people who get some kind of sickness benefit because of mental illness is steadily growing in Europe. Vocational rehabilitation through individual placement and support (IPS) has been shown to be effective and is evidence-based for people with severe mental illness. In Sweden, the method is used but not scientifically evaluated. The aim was to investigate vocational and nonvocational outcomes at a 1-year follow-up and the relationships between these outcomes, at two different sites in the north of Sweden. The participants were 65 men and women, mostly younger than 30 years of age and with a mental illness. Occupational situation, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, quality of life and psychosocial functioning were assessed. The vocational outcome during 1 year was that 25% of the participants were employed, and 14% were in education. Most of the participants moved from unemployment to work practice for a prolonged time. Participants in employment, education or work practice at follow-up showed higher satisfaction with their occupational situation than those without regular activities outside home. Among the participants in work practice, improvements in psychiatric symptoms and global functioning were identified. This attempt is the first to evaluate supported employment according to the IPS model for persons with mental illness applied in the Swedish welfare system. There is a need for a longer follow-up period to evaluate whether interventions such as further education and work practice actually will lead to real work.
In 2008, the Government of Alberta launched the First Nations, MÈtis and Inuit (FNMI) Workforce Planning Initiative, co-led by Employment and Immigration and Aboriginal Relations and supported by Education and Advanced Education and Technology. The overall goal of this initiative is to increase the participation of Aboriginal people in Albertaís workforce and economy
As Canadaís baby boomers ease into retirement, there is a timeliness to concerns expressed in the popular media that, as many workers leave the workforce, Canadaís elderly dependency ratio will rise, and more and more retirees will have to be supported by relatively fewer members of the workforce (Globe and Mail 2006; Guillemette 2003). This raises questions as to the economic well-being and average living standards of the population as relatively fewer workers are involved in producing output in Canada. It also poses concerns for the fiscal health and fiscal environment of government budgets as pension and health costs rise and as the traditional tax base of the working population declines in relative size (Toronto Star 2008). Obviously, these concerns are not unique to Canada, but are faced by most Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, which have been experiencing declining fertility rates and longer lifespans. They also raise the question of whether Canada and other such countries are going to experience reduced living standards as a result of their aging populations. And, consequently, what is the possible role for public policy to improve economic well-being in light of this changing environment (OECD 2005)? But an aging population and slower labour force growth also provide an opportunity to review a number of labour market, social security, and tax policies with an eye to providing greater flexibility to life-course work patterns and reduced impediments to transitioning more flexibly into retirement, based on workersí range of choices (PRI 2003; SRI 2008; Halliwell 2008).
Employers, like you, have a tremendous opportunity to design and implement new approaches and strategies to recruit, retain and re-engage older workers. The Forum of Federal/Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Seniors prepared this guide to help you understand how older workers can contribute to your organization. You will discover some of the strategies that you can use to engage older workers, and to support a diverse and inclusive workforce.