The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) has been fortunate to have received funding from Citizenship and Immigration Canada to develop cultural competence programming to address health disparities experienced by newcomers to Canada. To ensure that the resources developed through this funding have a broad impact, SickKids would like to share them with other organizations interested in addressing health disparities, promoting cultural competence and health equity, and enhancing the quality of care and service delivered to newcomers.Purpose
The information presented in this Cultural Competence Train-the-Trainer Manual is intended for organizations interested in implementing cultural competence programming. Specifically, educators and others can use the manual as a resource to implement educational programming aimed at enhancing the knowledge and skill of healthcare providers and other health care staff
in providing culturally competent care and service. The manual is designed to orient the educator to specific considerations in the development, implementation and evaluation of a cultural competence education program. The resources in this manual were developed specifically for SickKids but can be adapted to meet the unique needs of any community or social service health care organization.
With a focus on the use of technology when evaluating programs for Aboriginal people, this article explores the possibility of using visual and oral computer technology to enhance the incorporation of Aboriginal worldviews in program evaluation. The author situates Aboriginal worldviews, including methods of communication and transmission of knowledge, within a unique evaluation framework that also considers Western methods of data collection. Examples of the author’s framework are offered in the context of evaluations of Aboriginal programs. Based on her experiences, the author concludes that it is possible to join the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people with digital technology in program evaluation.
Canadian policy decision-making has utilized case studies extensively in recent years. Johnston Research Inc. (JRI) has completed more evaluation-related case studies over the past 4 years than in the previous 15 years of our evaluation work. To understand the growing application of case studies, we interviewed clients and contacts from First Nations that had been case study sites for our government clients, to understand what aspects of case study evaluation research had helped them share their opinions and improve their programs, and what aspects had not. We then interviewed our government clients, asking how well case studies served their evaluation purposes and their programs or policy development efforts. JRI conducted and financed this study to help us improve our own approaches for conducting case studies in Aboriginal populations and to share these findings with others. This article presents our interview findings on the value of case studies for Aboriginal evaluation projects and shares some best practices for conducting case studies within, and with, First Nations. Finally, we explore the impact case studies have had on Canadian policy.
Shelters for abused women have expanded from “safe havens” to providing a range of residential and outreach services, and face increasing pressure to demonstrate “value for money” by providing evaluation metrics that may or may not reflect what they actually do. We conducted interviews and surveys with 68 shelter directors in Ontario, Canada, and found that differences in service philosophy and how abuse is defined influence decisions about who receives services and the shelter’s role in the broader community; these in turn affect how the work of shelters is positioned. Implications for shelter service evaluation are discussed.
How can indigenous evaluators implement culturally competent models in First Nations communities while ensuring that government grant evaluation requirements are met? Through describing the challenges in one tribal community in the United States, this article will discuss how American Indian/Alaska Native substance abuse prevention programs are evaluating the implementation and outcomes of Strategic Prevention Framework grants from the federal government’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Requirements for implementing evidence-based programs normed on other populations and for evaluating data based on quantitative methods add to the challenge. Throughout the process, much is being learned that it is hoped will strengthen indigenous grantees and increase the cultural competence of government evaluation requirements. (Contains 2 figures.)
Rehabilitation is a concept which has assumed an increasingly influential role within the helping professions over the past several decades. In alignment with this trend has ben the establishment of short-erm training programs designed to met certain manpower needs.
The importance of cultural competence permeates all phases of evaluation since culture shapes how evaluators conceptualize questions, collect, analyze, and interpret data, and report evaluation results. This paper aims at enriching the understanding of Chinese culture from the perspective of Confucianism for the Western evaluators so that they may work efficiently in the Chinese cultural context. To avoid a general discussion, the author focuses on three subsets of the Program Evaluation Standards (3rd Edition), i.e., U4 Explicit Values, P2 Formal Agreements, and P3 Human Rights and Respect, in order to make an in-depth analysis of the cultural competence that the Western evaluators are expected to have to work in the Chinese cultural context. To this end, this paper compares the differences in Chinese and Western values, legal tradition related to entering into and implementing evaluation agreements, and the way in which people show respect. Finally, this paper provides some suggestions for the Western evaluators on how they may enhance their cultural readiness and achieve success in finishing their evaluation projects in China.
This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of ‘mainstream’ evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga, Whakawhanaungatanga, and He Taniko) as utilized by/with indigenous Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Using practical examples of evaluation projects conducted with and by Maori, the article highlights the very different ‘evaluation conversations’ happening amongst ‘mainstream’ practitioners—where the focus is on difference, competency, and issues of access—relative to those occurring amongst indigenous evaluators and communities—where evaluation praxis is framed within broader struggles for sovereignty and self-determination. By placing these paradigms in conversation with each other, I highlight the ways in which evaluation approaches that engage indigenous people and places are always representative of particular standpoints. This is because evaluation is unavoidably and simultaneous in dialog with the prevailing contexts of colonization and decolonization vis-a-vis the location and moment in which it occurs. The essay foregrounds the ways in which `mainstream’ evaluation’s preoccupation with issues of cultural competency fails to fully address the needs and aspirations of indigenous peoples. In contrast, the realization of Maori capacity to meet our evaluation needs as Maori, and as represented in the ongoing development and use of our own approaches and models, not only facilitates a more culturally meaningful evaluation process but also concurrently constitutes an expression of our sovereignty and agency.
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an “Indigenous Framework for Evaluation” that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged in an extensive consultation process including conducting a number of focus groups in major regions of the United States. Cultural experts, Indian educators, and evaluators shared their concerns regarding evaluation and described how evaluation fits within a cultural framework. This article summarizes the focus group discussions and describes how the framework developed using the key principles of Indigenous ways of knowing and four core values common to tribal communities
Cultural competence is “a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enables effective work in cross-cultural situations.”1 Cultural competence is an essential and ethical obligation for all evaluators. Applying a critical cultural lens to evaluation will ensure that efforts have cultural relevance and will generate meaningful findings that stakeholders ultimately will value and use. This Program Evaluation Tip Sheet contains tips and guiding questions aligned with the six steps of CDC’s Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health.2