“Disability is a development issue, with widespread poverty, inequality and violation of human rights. Recent estimates suggest that more than one billion people are living with some form of disability. Persons with disabilities are over-represented among the worldís poor, and significant labour market disadvantage helps maintain the link between poverty and disability in many country contexts. The costs of disability are particularly acute in low- and middle-income countries (those with gross national income per capita of less than $12,616), where up to 80% of people with disabilities of working age can be unemployed, around twice that for their counterparts in high-income countries. When people with disabilities do work, they generally do so for longer hours and lower incomes, have fewer chances of promotion, are more likely to work in the informal labour market, and are at greater risk of becoming unemployed for longer periods. The barriers faced by people with disabilities globally in accessing and sustaining paid work is a profound social challenge. There is now growing recognition of employment as a key factor in the process of empowerment and inclusion into society, and the role of interventions to improve labour market outcomes for disabled people is receiving increased international attention. It is therefore both vital and timely to increase understanding of the impacts of available programs, in order to ensure that they are effective in delivering positive outcomes for people with disabilities and provide value for money. Although several reviews have attempted to summarize the existing research in this area, there are a number of substantive and methodological limitations to these reviews. Thus, there is a need to systematically examine the evidence base to provide an overview of the types of interventions being used to improve employment outcomes, to identify those that are effective and ineffective, and to identify areas in which more research needs to be conducted.
To describe the range and diversity of interventions available for addressing the low labour market participation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in developing country contexts.
To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize the evidence on the effects of 6 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org interventions on labour market outcomes for disabled adults in low- and middle-income countries. As part of this, to critically analyze the evidence along the causal chain framework, linking interventions with intermediate outcomes and final impacts, and document the level/strength of evidence on potential pathways of impact using the framework.
To assess if effects are moderated by characteristics of the participants, interventions, and/or settings.
To provide an explanation for the intervention effects by examining what participants in the included studies reported about why the interventions did, or did not, work for the”
Canadian policy decision-making has utilized case studies extensively in recent years. Johnston Research Inc. (JRI) has completed more evaluation-related case studies over the past 4 years than in the previous 15 years of our evaluation work. To understand the growing application of case studies, we interviewed clients and contacts from First Nations that had been case study sites for our government clients, to understand what aspects of case study evaluation research had helped them share their opinions and improve their programs, and what aspects had not. We then interviewed our government clients, asking how well case studies served their evaluation purposes and their programs or policy development efforts. JRI conducted and financed this study to help us improve our own approaches for conducting case studies in Aboriginal populations and to share these findings with others. This article presents our interview findings on the value of case studies for Aboriginal evaluation projects and shares some best practices for conducting case studies within, and with, First Nations. Finally, we explore the impact case studies have had on Canadian policy.
In reviewing the historical pattern of education for the Aboriginal people it is noted that the education system was built on the goal of assimilation and was designed for individual economic improvement. According to Imel (2001), Aboriginal adult education programs in the 1950s were designed to improve adult English proficiency and provide adult vocational training. In more recent years, Aboriginal literacy programs have built in broader goals that are concerned with safeguarding Aboriginal language and culture rather than with promoting assimilation. The Aboriginal people have experienced great trauma in their educational journey, especially from the residential school approach where the children were removed from the home, community and nation and placed in a foreign environment governed by Eurocentric rules and expectations. The situation was not much better for the children who attended schools in their home community. They were also exposed to the Eurocentric values of corporal punishment in the learning situation and many were strapped for speaking their own language. Therefore, factors such as healing, reclamation of identity, language, cultures and self-determination, play a major role in the complex issue of Aboriginal literacy and learning. The Ontario Native Literacy Coalition states, “Native literacy is a tool which empowers the spirit of Native people. Native literacy services recognize and affirm the unique cultures of Native Peoples and the interconnectedness of all aspects of creation. As part of a life-long path of learning, Native literacy contributes to the development of self-knowledge and critical thinking. It is a continuum of skills that encompasses reading, writing, numeracy, speaking, good study habits and communication in other forms of language as needed. Based on the experience, abilities and goals of learners, Native literacy fosters and promotes achievement and a sense of purpose, which are both central to self-determination (George, ND:6).”
Although billions of dollars are spent annually on training and development, much about the transfer processes is not well understood. This study investigated the interaction of workplace climate and peer support on the transfer of learning in a corporate field setting. Supervisor ratings of performance on several skill dimensions were obtained before and after training. Trainees in a division with a more favorable climate and those with greater peer support showed greater improvement. In addition, peer support mitigated the effects of a negative climate. Trainees with peer support in a negative climate achieved the same degree of transfer as trainees in a positive climate. These results suggest that more proximal factors, like peer support, can overcome the effect of more distal factors, like climate, in promoting transfer. This study also advances understanding of the transfer process by assessing workplace environment with the use of measures other than trainee perceptions.
Fidelity concerns the extent to which a specific evaluation sufficiently incorporates the core characteristics of the overall approach to justify labeling that evaluation by its designated name. Fidelity has traditionally meant implementing a model in exactly the same way each time following the prescribed steps and procedures. The essential principles of developmental evaluation (DE), in contrast, provide high-inference sensitizing guidance that must be interpreted and applied contextually. In lieu of operationalizing DE fidelity criteria, I suggest addressing the degree of manifest sensitivity to essential principles. Principles as sensitizing concepts replace operational rules. This means that sensitivity to essential DE principles should be explicitly and contextually manifest in both processes and outcomes, in both design and use of findings. Eight essential principles of DE are identified and explained. Finally, 10 threats to evaluation model fidelity and/or degree of manifest sensitivity are identified with ways to mitigate those threats.
This article discusses creation of common evaluation frameworks for FASD-related programs. The project was guided by a social determinants of health perspective and included a literature search and consultations across Canada to help refine and confirm the final product. T e end result was development of three visual maps: FASD prevention programs, FASD support programs, and FASD programs in Aboriginal communities. Each map comprises concentric rings showing theoretical foundations; activities and approaches; and formative (program), participant, and community/systemic outcomes. The project website provides tools and indicators. The visual maps have wide-ranging applications that go beyond evaluation of FASD programs.
This is a review of Canadian best practices supporting the participation of persons with disabilities in the labour market. The objective of the research is to identify and analyze domestic best practices in programs, approaches or initiatives that support the participation of people with disabilities in the labour market. A related aim is to show how they can overcome barriers to labour market participation, thereby allowing governments to draw lessons from effective and successful employment programs for people with disabilities and develop policy options to optimize labour market outcomes for this group.
In the present context of labour shortages and skills gaps in Canada, it has been acknowledged that the country cannot afford to keep going without the talents of entire groups of populations that are currently under-represented in the labour market. Among those groups are people with disabilities. This group is far from homogenous, and therefore not easy to define. Data in this paper helps to show a picture of the employment situation of people with disabilities. This paper also addresses some of the barriers that people with disabilities face, and provides an overview of certain federal programs that can help them. Finally, this paper discusses the Canadian legislative framework, with a focus on measures that prevent discrimination against people with disabilities, allowing them to join the workforce and engage fully in their communities.
BACKGROUND:Participation in the workforce is one of the main social evaluations all individuals are subject to in modern society. Public policies supporting social justice for persons with disabilities have gained prominence in several nations in the last decades and it is critical to ensure that those who want to work are afforded the opportunity to do so. Meanwhile they remain under represented in the labor market within the contemporary world.
The purpose of this study was to identify facilitators or barriers faced by people with disability within the workforce.
Ten workers with disabilities from various companies and performing diverse professional job functions participated in semi-structured interviews.
The Discourse of the Collective Subject method was employed as a means to organize and analyze qualitative data of a verbal nature.
Reasonable work conditions, adjustments, and accommodations facilitate performance and job retention. Social participation through employment leads to social recognition and the feeling of citizenship. On the other hand prejudice, unequal opportunities, workers’ low educational attainment, and lack of training opportunities lead to employment exclusion.
To include people with disabilities in the workforce, it is necessary to focus on attaining equal levels of education, an unbiased and inclusive process for entering the labor market, and continued management of disability issues within the workplace. Together, these elements create equal opportunities for workers with disabilities to advance in their careers, which in turn enables participation, social recognition and guaranties their rights as citizens.
This article defines peer support/peer provided services; discusses the underlying psychosocial processes of these services; and delineates the benefits to peer providers, individuals receiving services, and mental health service delivery system. Based on these theoretical processes and research, the critical ingredients of peer provided services, critical characteristics of peer providers, and mental health system principles for achieving maximum benefits are discussed, along with the level of empirical evidence for establishing these elements.