As many Third World development plans foundered in the post-colonial era, there emerged a school of research that concentrated on how social and cultural patterns could inhibit economic change (Hoselitz, 1954, 1959; Shils, 1975). Much of this work was soon effectively criticized as ethnocentric in its notion of what development means, paternalistic if not racist in its tendency to contrast ìtraditionalî and ìmodemî societies, and inadequate empirically (Willner, 1964; Gusfield, 1967; Hirschman, 1965). Nevertheless, some careful studies of ìmodernizationî did document the power of various experiences and institutions to induce among individuals and groups the acceptance of new values, norms, and behavior – that is, to promote acculturation (which is the more neutral and non-teleological term we prefer to employ here).