Report

Interventions to Improve the Labor Market Situation of Adults with Physical and/or Sensory Disabilities in Low and Middle-Income Countries

“Disability is a development issue, with widespread poverty, inequality and violation of human rights. Recent estimates suggest that more than one billion people are living with some form of disability. Persons with disabilities are over-represented among the worldís poor, and significant labour market disadvantage helps maintain the link between poverty and disability in many country contexts. The costs of disability are particularly acute in low- and middle-income countries (those with gross national income per capita of less than $12,616), where up to 80% of people with disabilities of working age can be unemployed, around twice that for their counterparts in high-income countries. When people with disabilities do work, they generally do so for longer hours and lower incomes, have fewer chances of promotion, are more likely to work in the informal labour market, and are at greater risk of becoming unemployed for longer periods. The barriers faced by people with disabilities globally in accessing and sustaining paid work is a profound social challenge. There is now growing recognition of employment as a key factor in the process of empowerment and inclusion into society, and the role of interventions to improve labour market outcomes for disabled people is receiving increased international attention. It is therefore both vital and timely to increase understanding of the impacts of available programs, in order to ensure that they are effective in delivering positive outcomes for people with disabilities and provide value for money. Although several reviews have attempted to summarize the existing research in this area, there are a number of substantive and methodological limitations to these reviews. Thus, there is a need to systematically examine the evidence base to provide an overview of the types of interventions being used to improve employment outcomes, to identify those that are effective and ineffective, and to identify areas in which more research needs to be conducted.

OBJECTIVES
To describe the range and diversity of interventions available for addressing the low labour market participation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in developing country contexts.
To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize the evidence on the effects of 6 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org interventions on labour market outcomes for disabled adults in low- and middle-income countries. As part of this, to critically analyze the evidence along the causal chain framework, linking interventions with intermediate outcomes and final impacts, and document the level/strength of evidence on potential pathways of impact using the framework.
To assess if effects are moderated by characteristics of the participants, interventions, and/or settings.
To provide an explanation for the intervention effects by examining what participants in the included studies reported about why the interventions did, or did not, work for the”


Supporting Graduate Employability from Generalist Disciplines through Employer and Private Institution Collaboration

Graduate Employability means that higher education alumni have developed the capacity to obtain and/or create work. Furthermore, employability means that institutions and employers have supported the student knowledge, skills, attributes, reflective disposition and identity that graduates need to succeed in the workforce (Hinchliffe & Jolly, 2011; Holmes, 2013; Knight & Yorke, 2004; Yorke, 2006; Yorke & Knight, 2006). The project activities included: reviewing the literature; surveying students, graduates, higher education personnel and employers (705 valid surveys received); conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups (147 participants); and hosting a multi-stakeholder national graduate employability symposium (150 delegates).


Summative Evaluation of Opportunities Fund for Persons with Disabilities

This report presents a summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the Summative Evaluation of the OF. Findings from the evaluation’s multiple lines of evidence support the previous evaluation findings that the program has positive impacts on the employment and income levels of participants following program participation. Also, there continues to be a demonstrated need for the type of programming offered by OF for persons with disabilities and the program reflects both GC and Departmental policy directions and priority areas.The evidence collected for the evaluation can be found in more detail in technical reports which have been made available to program management. This document consists of the following three sections:
Section 1 provides a description of the OF program and the scope of the evaluation.
Section 2 presents the main findings regarding Relevance, Design and Delivery and Performance (Effectiveness, Efficiency and Economy).
Section 3 summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations.


Staying Ahead of the Curve 2013: The AARP Work and Career Study

Staying Ahead of the Curve is AARP’s Multicultural Work and Career Study. These studies – performed in 2002, 2007, and 2013 – provide an in-depth look at workers ages 45-74: their reasons for working, perceived job security, differential treatment received because of age, their ideal work scenario, the challenges they face, their plans for retirement, and more. The study also includes an in-depth look at African Americans and Hispanics. The full report and fact sheets are now available.
The 2013 survey was fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time, part-time, self-employed, or looking for work. Oversamples were also collected in order to yield a total of 402 African Americans and 410 Hispanics.


Improving the Participation of Under-utilized Talent of People with Physical Disabilities in the Canadian Labor Market: A Scoping Review

The purpose of this rapid scoping review is to identify the most promising policies, programs and employment practices which include people with physical disabilities in the workforce. The findings from this report are presented as 11 key implications that are organized into categories according to three target audience: (1) vocational rehabilitation and employment service providers; (2) employers and (3) businesses leaders and policy decision makers.


Towards an Understanding of Effective Practices in Employment Programs for People with Disabilities in Canada

This is a review of Canadian best practices supporting the participation of persons with disabilities in the labour market. The objective of the research is to identify and analyze domestic best practices in programs, approaches or initiatives that support the participation of people with disabilities in the labour market. A related aim is to show how they can overcome barriers to labour market participation, thereby allowing governments to draw lessons from effective and successful employment programs for people with disabilities and develop policy options to optimize labour market outcomes for this group.


Reconnecting Social Assistance Recipients to the Labor Market

This paper examines the reforms that governments have enacted to change both the focus of their social assistance programs and their method of delivery. In particular, the paper concentrates on the relationship between welfare reform and labour market policies. The objective is to determine which of these reforms seem to work well, which do not, and why. Understanding how these welfare reforms both depend on and affect the labour market will be useful in the development of future policies that fall within federal jurisdiction.


Women’s Economic Empowerment and Inclusive Growth

This paper was commissioned by DFID and IDRC with a view to locating the growing concern with women’s economic empowerment within its growth research programs. Inclusive growth, as defined by IDRC, is growth which ensures opportunities for all sections of the population, with a special emphasis on the poor, particularly women and young people, who are most likely to be marginalized. Central to both IDRC’s and DFID’s agenda is a concern with decent jobs and the promotion of small and medium enterprise. That there is both an instrumental and an intrinsic rationale for such an explicit focus on women within such an agenda is suggested by recent research suggesting an asymmetry in the two-way relationship between gender equality and economic growth (see, for instance, WDR 2012). A detailed review of the evidence helps to spell this out (Kabeer and Natali, forthcoming). This evidence suggests that there is fairly strong empirical support for the claim that gender equality has a positive impact on economic growth. The relationship is most consistent with regard to education (the most widely studied) and employment (less frequently studied), holding for a variety of different countries and across differing time periods over the past half century.


What Works: Effective Policies and Programs for the Homeless Population in Canada

The purpose of this study is to undertake a broad synthesis and analysis that critically examines federal, provincial, sub-provincial and international instruments, policies, and practices aimed at fostering the inclusion of homeless persons through:• Employment related activities that increase labour market attachment and integration;
• Opportunities for skills development; and
• Higher literacy and essential skills achievement via effective policy and program development strategies.
While the goal of the study is to examine Canadian policies and programs, experiences from other countries, notably the United States, England and Scotland, were reviewed to offer a broader perspective on the Canadian experience.