Report

Interventions to Improve the Labor Market Situation of Adults with Physical and/or Sensory Disabilities in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This report argues that disability is a development issue, related to poverty, inequality, and violation of human rights. It is known that a significant portion of the population lives with disabilities, and that these individuals are an untapped resource, underrepresented in the work force. It is suggested that, due to the underrepresentation of individuals living with disability in the workforce, there is an acute strain on individuals in low- and middle-income countries. The report examines some reviews that have been done to summarize the existing research in this area, the report also notes the limitations of the data presented in the literature base. It is suggested that a more systemic approach needs to be taken in order to understand the base of data already in place, and make sense of it in real world applications.

Supporting Graduate Employability from Generalist Disciplines through Employer and Private Institution Collaboration

This report used data information from the 2013 survey of Graduate Careers Australia to create an understanding of graduate employability. It is reported that the current graduate employability rates are the lowest seen in twenty years. The degree programs which saw the least post-graduation employment were the humanities, computer science, life sciences, and visual/performing arts. The project was aimed at researching the reasoning for these unemployment rates, to identify successful strategies for changing the unemployment rates, to promote strategies that improve graduate outcomes, and to create opportunities for stakeholders to share their experiences and suggestions. The work then presents important findings as well as next steps to be taken to improve employability for recent graduates.

Summative Evaluation of Opportunities Fund for Persons with Disabilities

This report offers information on the effectiveness of the Opportunities Fund for Persons with Disabilities (OF). The funding is aimed at supporting individuals will little to no labour force attachment to gain skills, prepare, and then become attached and maintain a strong link to the labour market, or to become self-employed. There is a range of interventions available for interested applicants, as well as additional funding for organizations who wish to provide employer awareness activities for the employment of individuals living with disability. The evaluation aimed to support the relevance of the program, as well as it’s successfulness in combatting the unequal labour market outcomes for individuals with disabilities. Ultimately, the report is able to determine the success to date, but does offer some recommendations for a strengthening of the existing framework to better serve individuals seeking to access the support.

Staying Ahead of the Curve 2013: The AARP Work and Career Study

This journal article is part of a series of studies around older workers aged 45-74. The goal of this study was to address older worker’s needs and concerns in an uneasy job market. Through a series of surveys, the work is able to establish issues older workers face pertaining to the 40 hours work week, confidence in job searches, working through retirement, and many more important issues facing older workers.

WE Research – Young Women Work

This report explores the barriers and opportunities for young women in the “new” economy, and outlines Community Economic Development approaches to preventing poverty among young women ages 15 -24. The report notes which community supports young women in two inner-city Winnipeg neighborhoods used, in order to understand how to build CED approaches into the current network of community-based organizations these young women already access. The researchers talked to 50 young women, the majority of whom are Aboriginal, about their neighborhoods, paid and unpaid work, school, computers, motherhood, teenage pregnancy, role models, and what they hoped for in their futures. The report concludes with recommendations to help young women build their capacity and improve their lives.

Improving the Participation of Under-utilized Talent of People with Physical Disabilities in the Canadian Labor Market: A Scoping Review

This report suggests that a solution to labor shortages can be found in the promotion of inclusion of under-utilized groups in the Canadian workforce. It is reported that in Canada there are approximately 2.4 million working-age individuals who are living with a disability, and approximately 795,000 of these individuals are unemployed but want to work. It is noted that for many of these individuals, their disability does not prevent them from working. The report suggests that expanding the employment of individuals with disabilities is not only essential for economic reasons, but also has shown it may improve employee satisfaction and loyalty, improve workplace morale, productivity, profitability and innovation, as well as reducing turnover.

Towards an Understanding of Effective Practices in Employment Programs for People with Disabilities in Canada

This report reviews best practices happening in Canadian policy and programs in supporting persons with disabilities to access the labour market. It reviews employment programs, active labour market measures, and tax measures to ascertain the rate at which persons living with disabilities participate in the workforce, and what programs or policies are effective in supporting persons living with disabilities in finding labour market attachment sustainability. It did not include a review of income support or social service programs, but did seek to identify factors associated with low employment, new ways of thinking about ‘best practice’, as well as identifying the characteristics of programming that is deemed to have been successful in labour market attachment for persons living with disabilities.

Reconnecting Social Assistance Recipients to the Labor Market

This report reviews the reforms related to Social Assistance programming in numerous countries and contexts. The aim of the report is to understand how welfare reform has intervened in labour market issues. It notes that there is more attention to welfare reform and intervention in the United States as opposed to in Canada, and that welfare systems in Canada have been varied since their implementation. The report aims to identify lessons learned from previous welfare reform and to apply them going forward in conceptualizing of welfare and social assistance. Finally, it notes that the lessons presented in the report are so far preliminary, as the examination of welfare policy and reform is now undergoing a more systematic approach.

Women’s Economic Empowerment and Inclusive Growth

The background of this report is around the notion that economic development begets gender equality. This is not entirely the case, as the study finds, and rather suggests that economic development does not necessarily mean that there is more gender equality in workplaces. The work examines the constraints and choices that determine gendered patterns of labour market outcomes. It is a valuable resource to understanding programming geared toward the economic empowerment of women.

What Works: Effective Policies and Programs for the Homeless Population in Canada

This journal article reviews a broad analysis to examine federal, provincial, sub-provincial, and international programs, policies, and practices focused at inclusion for homeless persons. It examined employment related activities that increased labour market attachment and integration, opportunities for skills development, as well as examined higher literacy and essential skills achievement through effective police and program development strategies. The study offers an extensive literature review about employment policies for homeless persons, as well as interviews with informants in Canada and other countries to understand how provincial programs might be used to combat homelessness. The work concludes with a discussion of the barriers faced by homeless persons, challenges to employment initiatives, and a discussion of employment initiatives as well as conclusions and suggestions for further research.