This report presents a background paper to the current conditions regarding labour market participation of persons living with disabilities. It importantly begins by noting that persons living with disabilities are hard to define as a group. Further, it suggests that an individual living with a disability cannot be thought of solely as being compromised by physical or mental impairments, rather that disability must be understood as an interaction between any physical or mental impairment or other external barriers that restrict the participation of individuals living with disabilities in society and, by extension, the workforce. It examines the current framework used to explain disability, moving from ‘impairment’ medical model, to a more ‘ecological’ model of disability; that disability is a social construct created by ability-oriented environments. It then examines the barriers to employment through this ecological lens, and suggests links to federal legislation which could be used to support persons living with disabilities.