Women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions within sport. As the number of women entering sport increases, a growing number of professionals recognize the inherent benefits of the mentoring relationship across a range of professional settings including sport (Bower, Hums, & Keedy, 2006; Grappendorf, Burton, & Lilienthal, 2007). Unfortunately, mentors are not always a viable option for women wanting to advance within leadership positions in sport. A primary reason for limited opportunities is the shortage of female in leadership positions within sport organizations creating a dearth of potential female mentors (Weaver & Chelladurai, 2002). Therefore, this paper explored the dynamics of the mentoring relationship between one professional organization (NAGWS) and potential career outcomes for women in sport. Specifically, how does NAGWS use group mentoring initiatives for girls and women in sport which may lead to potential advancement opportunities?
Mentoring has been identified as a key strategy to career development and has been argued to be indispensable for women to advance to positions of power. For mentoring to succeed, it is imperative that mentors trust their protégés. However, recent research has suggested that male mentors trust their male protégés more so than their female protégés. Since women are frequently mentored by men, it is imperative that they gain the same level of trust as their male peers enjoy. According to an established model of trust, trust is shaped by the mentor’s perceptions of protégé ability, benevolence and integrity, as well as perceptions of the risk inherent to mentoring. This exploratory research aims to examine what influences these perceptions to shed light on how protégés can gain the trust of their mentors.
OBJECTIVES: Peer support involves people in recovery from psychiatric disability offering support to others in the same situation. It is based on the belief that people who have endured and overcome a psychiatric disability can offer useful support, encouragement, and hope to their peers. Although several quantitative reviews on the effectiveness of peer support have been conducted, qualitative studies were excluded. This study aimed to synthesize findings from these studies.
METHOD: A qualitative metasynthesis was conducted, involving examination, critical comparison, and synthesis of 27 published studies. The experiences of peer support workers, their nonpeer colleagues, and the recipients of peer support services were investigated.
RESULTS: Peer support workers experiences included nonpeer staff discrimination and prejudice, low pay and hours, and difficulty managing the transition from “patient” to peer support worker. Positive experiences included collegial relationships with nonpeer staff, and other peers; and increased wellness secondary to working. Recipients of peer support services experienced increased social networks and wellness.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings highlight training, supervision, pay, nonpeer staff/peer staff relationships, as important factors for statutory mental health peer support programs.
This article describes what it means to feel poor from the perspective of low-income lone mothers. The construct of feeling poor is complex and multifaceted for these mothers, whose common behaviors include self-sacrifice and coping. The authors identify 10 feeling domains for these mothers: feeling deprived, righteous, the need for occupational choice, relatively better positioned than others, the need to manage the appearance of poverty, judged/degraded, guilty, isolated, dependent, and despondent.
Purpose – The purpose of the article is to examine how legitimacy as ‘an entrepreneur’ is gained in relation to others during the nascent phase.
Design/methodology/approach – Two firm creating teams are studied over a 12 month
incubation period. Data collected through participant observation, documentation and interviews
is employed as narratives in order to explore how nascent entrepreneurs gain legitimacy through
social interaction. Positioning theory is used to explore how negotiated rights and duties are
employed towards legitimacy gaining strategies.
Findings – Conforming, selecting and manipulating strategies are used to gain legitimacy during
a process of firm creation through interactive dialogue with key stakeholders (role-set).
Positioning facilitates a process of negotiated rights and duties that helps to define the role of
‘entrepreneur’ to which the nascent entrepreneurs aspire.
Research limitations/implications – The study is bounded to a specific contextual setting and
thus initial findings would benefit from further investigation in comparable and control settings.
Findings illustrate the ways in which nascent entrepreneurs employ legitimacy gaining strategies
through interaction with key stakeholders, an area of research not well understood. This
contributes to an understanding of how entrepreneurial identity is developed.
Practical implications – Designed firm creation environments can facilitate interaction with key
stakeholders and support positioning of nascent entrepreneurs as they attempt to gain legitimacy
in the role of ‘entrepreneur’, while creating a new firm. Legitimacy gaining strategies can
strengthen entrepreneurial identity development, which can be applied to multiple entrepreneurial
Originality/value – The article accesses individuals in the process of becoming entrepreneurs, a
phenomenon most often studied in hindsight. Emphasis on stakeholder interaction as
contributing to entrepreneurial development is also understudied. Legitimacy gaining strategies
are explored through narratives using positioning theory, an approach which has been discussed
conceptually but not readily applied empirically.
Effective mentoring is essential to the growth and success of librarianship in all types of library. This paper considers the possibilities for fostering mentoring activities among early career librarians, mid-career transitional librarians, and non-professional library workers. First, the paper describes existing studies to illuminate the urgency of mentoring activities to address the diminishing number of librarians and changing librarianship in the workforce as well as to support ongoing staffi ng needs. Secondly, it documents the academic library and professional organizations’ typical mentoring activities including their extensiveness and limits. The paper focuses on academic librarians in a university setting. Thirdly, the article describes one librarian’s mentoring activities to support and encourage beginning librarians to advance their careers in library and information science, to become active members of professional associations and to think about possible leadership roles. The paper concludes with (a) an account of how the author’s own mentoring/mentee roles have infl uenced her professional direction and (b) linking effective mentoring to library leadership. It demonstrates how the effective mentor will help the mentee not only to navigate the maze of professional organizations and committees, but also to achieve a more global understanding of the platform of libraries without borders.
The author presents an overview of issues related to counseling women re-entering the workforce. He suggests that counselors are in a strategic position to help women through the transitions and conflicts associated with returning to work and discusses (a) career barriers related to gender role stereotyping, (b) current job trends for women, (c) expectations for women re-entering the workforce, (d) suggestions for raising aspirations for re-entry women, and (e) developing energy opportunities.
How can indigenous evaluators implement culturally competent models in First Nations communities while ensuring that government grant evaluation requirements are met? Through describing the challenges in one tribal community in the United States, this article will discuss how American Indian/Alaska Native substance abuse prevention programs are evaluating the implementation and outcomes of Strategic Prevention Framework grants from the federal government’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Requirements for implementing evidence-based programs normed on other populations and for evaluating data based on quantitative methods add to the challenge. Throughout the process, much is being learned that it is hoped will strengthen indigenous grantees and increase the cultural competence of government evaluation requirements. (Contains 2 figures.)
Although billions of dollars are spent annually on training and development, much about the transfer processes is not well understood. This study investigated the interaction of workplace climate and peer support on the transfer of learning in a corporate field setting. Supervisor ratings of performance on several skill dimensions were obtained before and after training. Trainees in a division with a more favorable climate and those with greater peer support showed greater improvement. In addition, peer support mitigated the effects of a negative climate. Trainees with peer support in a negative climate achieved the same degree of transfer as trainees in a positive climate. These results suggest that more proximal factors, like peer support, can overcome the effect of more distal factors, like climate, in promoting transfer. This study also advances understanding of the transfer process by assessing workplace environment with the use of measures other than trainee perceptions.
Fidelity concerns the extent to which a specific evaluation sufficiently incorporates the core characteristics of the overall approach to justify labeling that evaluation by its designated name. Fidelity has traditionally meant implementing a model in exactly the same way each time following the prescribed steps and procedures. The essential principles of developmental evaluation (DE), in contrast, provide high-inference sensitizing guidance that must be interpreted and applied contextually. In lieu of operationalizing DE fidelity criteria, I suggest addressing the degree of manifest sensitivity to essential principles. Principles as sensitizing concepts replace operational rules. This means that sensitivity to essential DE principles should be explicitly and contextually manifest in both processes and outcomes, in both design and use of findings. Eight essential principles of DE are identified and explained. Finally, 10 threats to evaluation model fidelity and/or degree of manifest sensitivity are identified with ways to mitigate those threats.