Journal Article

Can Cultural Competency Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities?

“The Caledon Institute of Social Policy committed to continue the data series following the demise of the National Council of Welfare in 2012. The figures presented in this report are based on the same methodology employed by the Council, thereby ensuring the integrity and comparability of the data series. The welfare incomes in this report represent the total amount that four typical households would receive over the course of a year. These households are: a single person considered employable, a single person with a disability, a single parent with one child age 2 and a couple with two children ages 10 and 15.
Total welfare incomes consist of the sum of two main components:
ï social assistance
ï provincial/territorial and federal child benefits as well as relevant provincial/territorial and federal tax credits.
It is important to note that the amounts shown for welfare represent the maximum paid for basic needs. Households may receive less if they derive income from other sources. Some households may be eligible for more than the amounts identified here if they have special health- or disability-related needs.”


Sex Differences and Cross-Sex Effects On Mentoring: Some Preliminary Data

The mentor relationship is increasingly being seen as an important ingredient in career development, particularly for women managers and professionals. This study examined sex differences and cross-sex effects of the mentor-protege relationship. Data were collected, using questionnaires, from 81 male and 13 female mentors in high technology firms. Both sex and cross-sex effects were observed. Psychosocial functions were more prevalent when women were involved as either mentors or proteges and most prevalent in pairs of women.


Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population

The Program for Research on Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP) is an interdisciplinary research program centered at McMaster University with co-investigators at seventeen other universities in Canada and abroad. The SEDAP Research Paper series provides a vehicle for distributing the results of studies undertaken by those associated with the program. Authors take full responsibility for all expressions of opinion.


Understanding the Effects of Training Programs for Vulnerable Adults on Social Inclusion as a part of Continuing Education

According to the increasing rates of unemployment and poverty a significant share of the European population can be considered at-risk-of-social exclusion. In order to combat social exclusion adult education seemed to be a possible tool, which can increase social inclusion among adult learners. This study explores factors relating to training programs considered as adult and continuing education which enhance social inclusion for vulnerable adults and their life environment. The results indicate that after following the training programs as part of continuing learning, the participants show a significant increase in activation and internalization as well as participation and connection (as processes of social inclusion). Moreover, non-parametric correlation analysis and logistical regression analysis shows that the training design feature transfer possibilities is significantly related to the increase of almost all social inclusion variables. Besides this direct surroundings and learning contents and activities only significantly relates to the increase of social inclusion variables of activation and internalization and care to the social inclusion variables of participation and connection.


Using Technology to Enhance Aboriginal Evaluations

With a focus on the use of technology when evaluating programs for Aboriginal people, this article explores the possibility of using visual and oral computer technology to enhance the incorporation of Aboriginal worldviews in program evaluation. The author situates Aboriginal worldviews, including methods of communication and transmission of knowledge, within a unique evaluation framework that also considers Western methods of data collection. Examples of the author’s framework are offered in the context of evaluations of Aboriginal programs. Based on her experiences, the author concludes that it is possible to join the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people with digital technology in program evaluation.


Understanding Older Canadian Workers’ Perspectives on Aging in the Context of Communication and Knowledge Transfer

Background The Canadian population is aging, as is the Canadian workforce, resulting in an increase in different generations working with one another. The current study aims at understanding, from the older worker’s point of view, generational perceptions in the workplace, and further how such perceptions are linked with communication patterns as well as knowledge transfer. Analysis This study collected 167 responses from a survey of older workers. The questionnaire addressed variables under study such as intergenerational perceptions, and workplace communication and collaboration patterns. Conclusion and implications Results suggest that older workers perceived that their younger peers view them positively. Furthermore, older workers rely on accommodative communication patterns and favor knowledge transfer when interacting with younger colleagues


To Case Study or Not to Case Study: Our Experience with the Canadian Government’s Evaluation Practices and the use of Case Studies as an Evaluation Methodology for First Nations Programs

Canadian policy decision-making has utilized case studies extensively in recent years. Johnston Research Inc. (JRI) has completed more evaluation-related case studies over the past 4 years than in the previous 15 years of our evaluation work. To understand the growing application of case studies, we interviewed clients and contacts from First Nations that had been case study sites for our government clients, to understand what aspects of case study evaluation research had helped them share their opinions and improve their programs, and what aspects had not. We then interviewed our government clients, asking how well case studies served their evaluation purposes and their programs or policy development efforts. JRI conducted and financed this study to help us improve our own approaches for conducting case studies in Aboriginal populations and to share these findings with others. This article presents our interview findings on the value of case studies for Aboriginal evaluation projects and shares some best practices for conducting case studies within, and with, First Nations. Finally, we explore the impact case studies have had on Canadian policy.


What Counts? A Mixed-Methods Study to Inform Evaluation of Shelters for Abused Women

Shelters for abused women have expanded from “safe havens” to providing a range of residential and outreach services, and face increasing pressure to demonstrate “value for money” by providing evaluation metrics that may or may not reflect what they actually do. We conducted interviews and surveys with 68 shelter directors in Ontario, Canada, and found that differences in service philosophy and how abuse is defined influence decisions about who receives services and the shelter’s role in the broader community; these in turn affect how the work of shelters is positioned. Implications for shelter service evaluation are discussed.


The How’s and Why’s of Group Mentoring

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the methodologies for developing a group mentoring component as an add-on to an existing or new corporate mentoring program. Design/methodology/approach – The paper defines group mentoring and explains the differences between group mentoring and classroom training. It provides the hallmarks of mentoring that should exist in a group mentoring program along with the individual development areas that can be successfully addressed through group mentoring. Also included are seven tips for starting and
sustaining a group mentoring program. These tips cover areas such as the optimal group structure, logistics, the use of facilitators, obstacles and measuring the success of the program.
Findings – When implemented correctly, mentoring groups have proven to be a successful training and development strategy. Some of the documented outcomes for participants are increased confidence, expanded understanding of the organization and increased commitment and connectedness to the organization.
Originality/value – Training and development managers who are struggling to expand their mentoring programs can use the information provided in the paper to add group mentoring to their mentorship program


Returning the Favor – Positive Employee Responses to Supervisor and Peer Support for Training Transfer

Drawing on social exchange theory and associated notions of reciprocity, we argue that interpersonal support for training transfer in the workplace is associated with increased employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and reduced turnover intention. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 786 Chinese retail employees. The findings show that when employees perceive high levels of supervisor/peer support for training transfer, they are more likely to deliver higher levels of task performance and OCB in response, which in turn, lead to reduced turnover intention. We also found that the strength of the relationship between supervisor/peer support for training transfer on individuals’ OCB varied across regions within China. The results confirm the moderating role of regional context (coastal and inland regions) on the relationship between supervisor/peer support for training transfer on individuals’ OCB, with a stronger effect found in less economically developed inland regions. The moderating effect of region indicates that cross?cultural researchers need to be aware of possible within?country variations in employee attitudes and values.