The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) has been fortunate to have received funding from Citizenship and Immigration Canada to develop cultural competence programming to address health disparities experienced by newcomers to Canada. To ensure that the resources developed through this funding have a broad impact, SickKids would like to share them with other organizations interested in addressing health disparities, promoting cultural competence and health equity, and enhancing the quality of care and service delivered to newcomers.Purpose
The information presented in this Cultural Competence Train-the-Trainer Manual is intended for organizations interested in implementing cultural competence programming. Specifically, educators and others can use the manual as a resource to implement educational programming aimed at enhancing the knowledge and skill of healthcare providers and other health care staff
in providing culturally competent care and service. The manual is designed to orient the educator to specific considerations in the development, implementation and evaluation of a cultural competence education program. The resources in this manual were developed specifically for SickKids but can be adapted to meet the unique needs of any community or social service health care organization.
The two sets of Guidelines are intended to provide direction to policy makers, decision makers, program leaders and the Canadian public about the practice of peer support. The two sets of Guidelines offer elements for the practice of peer support and an outline of the underlying values, principles of practice, skills and abilities of supporters. We encourage prospective and practicing peer support workers to consider the set of Guidelines as a roadmap for personal development, and we encourage administrators to consult the set of Guidelines as they develop or enhance peer support programs within their organizations. Both sets of Guidelines focus on a structured form of peer support that fosters recovery. The peer support worker1 will have lived experience2 of a mental health challenge or illness, or is a family member or loved one of someone who does,3 is in a positive state of recovery and has developed an ability to provide peer support. The content of the Training Guidelines parallels the critical elements outlined in the Guidelines for the Practice of Peer Support. The two sets of Guidelines support Changing Direction, Changing Lives: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada, developed by the Mental Health Commission of Canada, and are meant to be consistent with its goals for achieving the best possible mental health and wellbeing for everyone. In particular, Goal Five of the national strategy calls for people to have “equitable and timely access to appropriate and effective programs, treatments, services, and supports that are seamlessly integrated around their needs.” This goal recognizes the full range of services and supports, such as peer support, which may provide benefit. Peer support can be a valuable component on the path of recovery for individuals with a mental health challenge or illness and for their family members/loved ones
The past decade has seen a steady increase in the number of older Canadians participating in the workforce, especially since mandatory retirement was formally repealed as recently as 2011. In 2001, approximately 12% of individuals 65-69 were participating in the Canadian workforce – a number that more than doubled to nearly 26% in 2013.1 Supporting the participation of older Canadians in the workforce derives many benefits for Canada as whole, including stemming the premature loss of experienced, skilled and knowledgeable workers; further supporting intergenerational knowledge exchange; and driving the overall economic productivity of the country. Indeed, from a macroeconomic perspective, the continued and sustained participation of older Canadians in the workforce beyond the traditional age of retirement may go some way to curtail the some of the negative predicted economic effects of a rapidly growing cohort of boomers who are getting set to retire.2
What is a lens tool? A lens tool provides a way of applying a special filter to our work. In this case, the lens tool encourages us to apply diversity and inclusion concepts to all we do for patients and their families. The Diversity and Inclusion Lens Tool is a set of questions meant to help staff, physicians, learners and volunteers consider the concepts of diversity, inclusion and equity in the development, revision, implementation and evaluation of programs, policies and practices. Why have a lens tool? When the diversity of our staff, patients and families isn’t considered, our programs, policies and practices may not appropriately serve all of the people for which they are intended. This can lead to mistrust, delayed healing, misunderstanding and a reduced quality of service. In the end, this hurts our communities and all of us1 . What is a lens tool kit? To expand on the above definition… ? A lens tool refers to questions and reflection statements designed to help us take an inclusive and sometimes critical look at what we have been doing, what we want to do and how we want to work. ? A lens tool kit refers to the collection of resources we have compiled, including the following three sections: Lens Tools, Understanding Our Communities and Resources. ? It applies to our services, relationships, programs, policies, strategies and decisions.
Cultural Competence aims to foster constructive interactions between members of different cultures. The following is a widely used definition: “Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enable that system, agency or those professionals to work effectively in cross cultural situations” (Cross et al, 1989). The word “culture” implies an integrated pattern of human behavior and the word “competence” implies having the capacity to function effectively. Cultural competence should be viewed as an on-going process. Through this process, individuals develop awareness and knowledge about the value that diversity can bring to an organization and a community. Cultural competence goes beyond “culture as ethnicity” to discover the complexities of individual cultural identities (Cross et al, 1989). A culturally competent organization: Values diversity and incorporates at all levels the importance of culture.
Conducts an assessment of cross-cultural relations.
Is vigilant towards and manages the dynamics of cultural difference.
Expands its cultural knowledge.
Adapts its services to meet the culturally-unique needs of individuals served
(Cross et al, 1989).