Literature Database

Interventions to Improve the Labor Market Situation of Adults with Physical and/or Sensory Disabilities in Low and Middle-Income Countries

“Disability is a development issue, with widespread poverty, inequality and violation of human rights. Recent estimates suggest that more than one billion people are living with some form of disability. Persons with disabilities are over-represented among the worldís poor, and significant labour market disadvantage helps maintain the link between poverty and disability in many country contexts. The costs of disability are particularly acute in low- and middle-income countries (those with gross national income per capita of less than $12,616), where up to 80% of people with disabilities of working age can be unemployed, around twice that for their counterparts in high-income countries. When people with disabilities do work, they generally do so for longer hours and lower incomes, have fewer chances of promotion, are more likely to work in the informal labour market, and are at greater risk of becoming unemployed for longer periods. The barriers faced by people with disabilities globally in accessing and sustaining paid work is a profound social challenge. There is now growing recognition of employment as a key factor in the process of empowerment and inclusion into society, and the role of interventions to improve labour market outcomes for disabled people is receiving increased international attention. It is therefore both vital and timely to increase understanding of the impacts of available programs, in order to ensure that they are effective in delivering positive outcomes for people with disabilities and provide value for money. Although several reviews have attempted to summarize the existing research in this area, there are a number of substantive and methodological limitations to these reviews. Thus, there is a need to systematically examine the evidence base to provide an overview of the types of interventions being used to improve employment outcomes, to identify those that are effective and ineffective, and to identify areas in which more research needs to be conducted.

OBJECTIVES
To describe the range and diversity of interventions available for addressing the low labour market participation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in developing country contexts.
To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize the evidence on the effects of 6 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org interventions on labour market outcomes for disabled adults in low- and middle-income countries. As part of this, to critically analyze the evidence along the causal chain framework, linking interventions with intermediate outcomes and final impacts, and document the level/strength of evidence on potential pathways of impact using the framework.
To assess if effects are moderated by characteristics of the participants, interventions, and/or settings.
To provide an explanation for the intervention effects by examining what participants in the included studies reported about why the interventions did, or did not, work for the”


Can Cultural Competency Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities?

“The Caledon Institute of Social Policy committed to continue the data series following the demise of the National Council of Welfare in 2012. The figures presented in this report are based on the same methodology employed by the Council, thereby ensuring the integrity and comparability of the data series. The welfare incomes in this report represent the total amount that four typical households would receive over the course of a year. These households are: a single person considered employable, a single person with a disability, a single parent with one child age 2 and a couple with two children ages 10 and 15.
Total welfare incomes consist of the sum of two main components:
ï social assistance
ï provincial/territorial and federal child benefits as well as relevant provincial/territorial and federal tax credits.
It is important to note that the amounts shown for welfare represent the maximum paid for basic needs. Households may receive less if they derive income from other sources. Some households may be eligible for more than the amounts identified here if they have special health- or disability-related needs.”


Small Differences that Matter Differences in the Social Safety Net and the Implications for Women and Children

The past 15 years has been a period of active policy reform in the cash and near-cash social safety nets of both the United States and Canada. Perhaps more than any other area of social policy, programs in both countries aimed at low-income families and children have evolved from their pre- 1992 form. This paper examines this evolution across the two countries, both reviewing the existing evidence and providing additional analysis on how the programs have fared in achieving a broad set of goals. We focus on the two largest programs over this period: the US EITC and the Canadian NCB/CCTB. The evolution of these programs in both countries represents a significant move away from what preceded them and the programs in the two countries now share many similarities. However, we also note “small differences” across these programs that may matter, the largest of which is the work requirements across the two countries. In light of these changes, we examine trends in employment, poverty and family structure of the most affected families, across the two countries. We also review the existing evaluations of these policies and find that the programs in both countries have had significant benefits for children, increased employment for single mothers, and are associated with declines in poverty.


Supporting Graduate Employability from Generalist Disciplines through Employer and Private Institution Collaboration

Graduate Employability means that higher education alumni have developed the capacity to obtain and/or create work. Furthermore, employability means that institutions and employers have supported the student knowledge, skills, attributes, reflective disposition and identity that graduates need to succeed in the workforce (Hinchliffe & Jolly, 2011; Holmes, 2013; Knight & Yorke, 2004; Yorke, 2006; Yorke & Knight, 2006). The project activities included: reviewing the literature; surveying students, graduates, higher education personnel and employers (705 valid surveys received); conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups (147 participants); and hosting a multi-stakeholder national graduate employability symposium (150 delegates).


SickKids Cultural Competence Train-the-Trainer Workshop

The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) has been fortunate to have received funding from Citizenship and Immigration Canada to develop cultural competence programming to address health disparities experienced by newcomers to Canada. To ensure that the resources developed through this funding have a broad impact, SickKids would like to share them with other organizations interested in addressing health disparities, promoting cultural competence and health equity, and enhancing the quality of care and service delivered to newcomers.Purpose
The information presented in this Cultural Competence Train-the-Trainer Manual is intended for organizations interested in implementing cultural competence programming. Specifically, educators and others can use the manual as a resource to implement educational programming aimed at enhancing the knowledge and skill of healthcare providers and other health care staff
in providing culturally competent care and service. The manual is designed to orient the educator to specific considerations in the development, implementation and evaluation of a cultural competence education program. The resources in this manual were developed specifically for SickKids but can be adapted to meet the unique needs of any community or social service health care organization.


Sex Differences and Cross-Sex Effects On Mentoring: Some Preliminary Data

The mentor relationship is increasingly being seen as an important ingredient in career development, particularly for women managers and professionals. This study examined sex differences and cross-sex effects of the mentor-protege relationship. Data were collected, using questionnaires, from 81 male and 13 female mentors in high technology firms. Both sex and cross-sex effects were observed. Psychosocial functions were more prevalent when women were involved as either mentors or proteges and most prevalent in pairs of women.


Summative Evaluation of Opportunities Fund for Persons with Disabilities

This report presents a summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the Summative Evaluation of the OF. Findings from the evaluation’s multiple lines of evidence support the previous evaluation findings that the program has positive impacts on the employment and income levels of participants following program participation. Also, there continues to be a demonstrated need for the type of programming offered by OF for persons with disabilities and the program reflects both GC and Departmental policy directions and priority areas.The evidence collected for the evaluation can be found in more detail in technical reports which have been made available to program management. This document consists of the following three sections:
Section 1 provides a description of the OF program and the scope of the evaluation.
Section 2 presents the main findings regarding Relevance, Design and Delivery and Performance (Effectiveness, Efficiency and Economy).
Section 3 summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations.


Staying Ahead of the Curve 2013: The AARP Work and Career Study

Staying Ahead of the Curve is AARP’s Multicultural Work and Career Study. These studies – performed in 2002, 2007, and 2013 – provide an in-depth look at workers ages 45-74: their reasons for working, perceived job security, differential treatment received because of age, their ideal work scenario, the challenges they face, their plans for retirement, and more. The study also includes an in-depth look at African Americans and Hispanics. The full report and fact sheets are now available.
The 2013 survey was fielded in November 2012 and December 2012 with a national sample of 1502 adults ages 45-74 who were working full-time, part-time, self-employed, or looking for work. Oversamples were also collected in order to yield a total of 402 African Americans and 410 Hispanics.


State of Practice: Essential Skills Applications with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis in Canada

In May 2012, the Canadian Career Development Foundation (CCDF) began a project, The State of Practice: Essential Skills Applications with First Nations, Inuit and Métis in Canada (FIMESA), that’s aim, is to: • Increase the understanding of Essential Skills Applications for First Nations, Inuit and Métis by developing a comprehensive inventory of current Essential Skills practices aimed at increasing employability and employment for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth and adults living in diverse environments and; • Increase capacity in the field by developing an Essential Skills (ES) community of practice engaged in the development and assessment of the inventory, the widespread dissemination of results and promotion of ongoing innovation through the sharing of best practices in Essential Skills application and evaluation. This project is meant to solidify the field’s understanding of the state of practice with respect to ES applications tailored to First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations, help “uncover” factors which contribute to strong employability and employment outcomes and, through the establishment of an ES community of practice, identify, share and promote innovation and excellence in service delivery and evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the current level of need for Essential Skill development among First Nations, Inuit and Métis, to explore the state of practice of Essential Skills initiatives with these populations in Canada and to examine innovative practices in an effort to determine potential “markers of excellence” in ES programming.


Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population

The Program for Research on Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP) is an interdisciplinary research program centered at McMaster University with co-investigators at seventeen other universities in Canada and abroad. The SEDAP Research Paper series provides a vehicle for distributing the results of studies undertaken by those associated with the program. Authors take full responsibility for all expressions of opinion.