The demographic structures of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada are undergoing profound changes. In the coming decades, fewer young people will enter the workforce, growth in the population traditionally considered to be of working age is projected to slow or even reverse, and people past today’s normal retirement ages will almost certainly make up a larger share of the pool from which employers must draw. The members of the British-North American Committee (BNAC) are concerned that employers and policymakers are not yet sufficiently aware of the challenges these changes pose. Many current practices and public policies were shaped during times when high unemployment, particularly among the young, was a key preoccupation, and are ill suited to the conditions of the early twenty-first century. Seeking to improve its understanding of these challenges and possible employer responses, the BNAC asked a working group under the chairmanship of Claude Lamoureux to study the issues. The accompanying study by William Robson, which includes a survey of organizations with which BNAC members are associated, is the result. As the study reveals, the potentially chronic labor shortages that loom ahead will require responses in many areas — hiring and contracting, work scheduling, training, compensation and job assignment, and workplace organization. Many current public policies are inconsistent with future needs, and the long lead times for reform mean that employers need to keep policymakers abreast of the challenges and urge them to timely action.